I conducted a Google search for applicant tracking codes and the results confirmed my suspicions about the lack of clarity in the reference to the terms disposition vs. status vs. stage. Along with the maze of applicant tracking systems, there is also an overabundance of philosophies as to the right and wrong way of dispositioning candidates. Whether you use an electronic or manual applicant tracking system, it is crucial that you:
- Identify the various stages in the selection process, which we will refer to as either the job seeker’s status or stage; and
- Designate the reason why a candidate is not selected or advanced to the next stage. We will refer to these as dispositions aka rejection reasons.
- An individual submits an expression of interest in employment by applying for a specific open position;
- The contractor considers the individual for employment in a particular position by opening their resume and reviewing their qualifications;
- The candidate possesses the basic qualifications for the position based on preset criteria listed in a job posting or job description; and
- At no point prior to receiving an offer of employment does the candidate withdraw interest explicitly or implicitly (e.g. salary requirements too high, not willing to travel, accepted other offer, failed to respond to inquiries, etc.).
Identifying the Stages of the Selection Process
To defend adverse impact, contractors may be asked by OFCCP to identify the various stages of their selection process and to track candidates through each stage. Setting up stages and assigning disposition codes to the candidate at each stage will allow you to conduct a step-analysis to determine each candidate’s outcome in the selection process. More specifically, how far they progressed, where they fell out and what was the reason for failing to progress.
For each stage in the selection process, which may also be referred to as the job seeker’s status, the candidate should be assigned a disposition. This will enable the contractor to determine if the candidate progressed through each stage in the selection process and/or identify the specific stage where their advancement ended. The following are sample stages which should be modified based on your own selection process. For instance, if the resume is initially reviewed and screened by a recruiter, then sent to the hiring manager for a second review, you would want to specify the various levels of review. The same may be the case for interviews that might be conducted by human resources personnel, the hiring manager, the executive team, etc.
|Status Code||Stage or Status|
|Not Cons||Not considered – resume/profile not opened|
|PhScreen||Phone screen completed|
|Int-1st||1st interview completed|
|Int-2nd||2nd interview completed|
|Offer-Waiting||Position offered – waiting for response|
|Hired-Ext||Offer accepted / External hire|
|Hired-Int||Offer accepted / Internal placement|
|Not Filled||Position on hold / cancelled / not filled|
Dispositions identify two things:
- The reason why the contractor decided not to move forward with the candidate, or
- The reason why the candidate opted out of the process.
Avoid the urge to take a short cut and mass assign the same disposition to candidates without ensuring that you can defend your selection. This may be the easiest way to go through the process but definitely not the safest. Keep in mind that there is the possibility that an OFCCP compliance officer (CO) may want to review the job posting or job description to compare the job requirements against the candidate’s skills, experience and education on the resume. The CO’s goal is to assess whether the candidate did or did not possess job related basic qualifications based on the preset criteria of the position. The internet applicant rule indicates that a third party, who may not have direct knowledge of your organization or the specific position, should be able to review the job description and determine if the job seeker possesses the basic qualifications necessary to perform the job.
|Sample Scenario: Your offer has been accepted and you are about to close the requisition. You realize that you have not recorded a disposition at each stage or the final stage in which the candidate failed to advance. You may be inclined to take the quick route and identify the same disposition for all remaining candidates not hired. For this illustration, let’s say that you assign every candidate that is not selected the disposition of “more qualified candidate selected – experience.” If you don’t have an OFCCP audit within the next several years, you may have gotten lucky. However, if there is adverse impact in the job group, you may have to provide OFCCP with information to support your hiring decision. If this review does not confirm that the hire had more experience than all other applicants, the selection of this disposition code may come back to haunt you. You may be forced to go back and manually review each applicant’s resume to determine where and why they fell out in the process. Needless to say, this task will not be pleasant!|
The following are sample dispositions which, as recommended above for stages, should be customized based on the selection process within your organization. For instance, if you do not require a written test, there is no need to include that disposition.
|Disposition Code||Dispositions - Rejection Reason|
|Filled||Applied after position was filled|
|No Relo||Company not willing to pay for relocation|
|No BQ-cert||Does not meet basic qualifications – certifications/licenses|
|No BQ-educ||Does not meet basic qualifications – education|
|No BQ-exp||Does not meet basic qualifications – experience|
|No BQ-skills||Does not meet basic qualifications – skills|
|No BQ-clearance||Does not meet basic qualifications – security clearance|
|Failed-Bkgd Ck||Failed background check – post offer|
|Failed-Drug||Failed drug screen – post offer|
|Failed-Med Exam||Failed medical exam – post offer|
|Failed-test||Failed written test|
|Falsified Info||Falsified or misrepresented skills/experience/education|
|Prime Reject||Government or prime rejected|
|MQC-educ||More qualified candidate selected – education|
|MQC-exp||More qualified candidate selected – experience|
|MQC-skills||More qualified candidate selected – skills|
|No rehire||Not eligible for rehire – former employee|
|Not US Elig||Unable to work in the U.S.|
|W-NCNS||Withdrew – did not show for interview, test, work|
|W-No contact||Withdrew – did not return phone calls/could not contact|
|W-schedule||Withdrew – hours/schedule unacceptable|
|W-unknown||Withdrew – reason unknown|
|W-salary||Withdrew – salary unacceptable|
|W-travel||Withdrew – unwilling to travel|
|W-relo||Withdrew – unwilling to relocate|
|W-vol||Withdrew – voluntarily from consideration|
Here are a few tips to help you set-up and maintain a useful applicant tracking system.
- Always customize the stages/status and disposition codes instead of relying on the standard ones preset in your electronic ATS.
- Train all employees who are involved in the applicant tracking process and make sure that they understand their role, responsibility and risk involved in properly maintaining candidate data.
- Clearly articulate the basic qualifications for each position so that reviewers/screeners have preset criteria for consistently evaluating candidates.
- Accurately assign a disposition for all candidates reviewed at each stage and ensure that it can be supported by an assessment of qualifications against job criteria.
- Refrain from mass dispositioning candidates once the selection decision is made.
We all know what happens when OFCCP starts asking for support of hiring decisions that may have occurred over the past several years. Either hiring managers have left the organization or their memory has faded, particularly if your organization has a lot of job openings and subsequent large numbers of candidates.
Even though collecting and tracking disposition data on applicants is a challenge for many organizations, it is easier to do it correctly upfront than having to recreate the data months or years from the hiring decision. It is best to work with your compliance team to help select the right applicant tracking system for your organization and to properly set up the stages and disposition codes at the implementation stage. Educating staff and making the process as simplistic as possible should lead to accurate recordkeeping.
Disclaimer: The foregoing has been prepared for the general information of readers of The OFCCP Digest and is not being represented as being all-inclusive or complete. It is not meant to provide legal advice with respect to any specific matter and should not be acted upon without professional counsel.